Diabetes Mellitus or Sugar diabetes is a chronic lifelong disease involving an insulin deficiency, due to which, the body is unable to use glucose normally. Glucose, a kind of sugar, is the chief source of energy, which the cells of the body use.
Insulin is a hormone (produced by the pancreas) which helps the entry of glucose into the cells.
The features of this disease are as follows:
* An excess of sugar in the blood and urine
* Excessive hunger
* Excessive thirst
* Unexplained loss of body weight
This disease is of three kinds:
1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
2. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
3. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
1) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus:
This is also known as Insulin-dependent diabetes, because it is treated by taking insulin in the form of shots, which are injected thru the skin into the fatty tissue below the skin using syringes or insulin pens with filled cartridges or insulin pumps. Usually the fatty tissue under the abdominal skin is used for administering the insulin.
This type of Diabetes usually begins in childhood and in case of it, the pancreas stops making insulin. Dealing with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, is no big deal.
In fact, the patients play the most significant role in this regard. They need to understand the pros and cons of the disease make changes in their life styles such as:
– Thoughtful planning of meals
– Performance of exercise on a daily basis
– Take the insulin and other medications as and when advised by the Doctor
– Monitor their blood glucose levels regularly
2) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus:
This is also known as Non-Insulin dependent diabetes and is usually a docile type of Diabetes. In this type, the pancreas advancingly makes smaller amounts of insulin or else there is insulin resistance.
Usually the overweight individuals are more prone to develop this type. Since there is no cure for this type, hence the patients have to be sensible enough to deal with this type by adopting the following measures:
– Control their body weight
– Adopt a proper nutritional plan
– Anti-diabetes medicines
3) Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:
This is the type of Diabetes that is activated by Pregnancy, due to the fact that pregnancy causes insulin resistance to some extent. It is of crucial importance to control this type of Diabetes, because there occurs some opposition to insulin, as a result of pregnancy, hence the excessive blood glucose in the mother reaches the baby thru the placenta, placing a harmful effect on the growth and development of the baby. Moreover the baby may gain excess weight abnormally inside the womb of the mother, may have difficulty breathing at birth etc.
As far as the mother is concerned, she might have to undergo a Cesarean section (a surgical operation for delivering a baby, by cutting thru the motherâ€™s abdominal and uterine walls) so as to deliver a large baby.
Control of Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetics should pay particular attention to their daily diet plan. Usually the diabetics are advised to consume less than two thousand calories every day (however there could be variations in these values, depending on the size of the patientâ€™s body as well the amount of physical activity he or she indulges in)
The following nutrients are allowed:
– Nutritionally rich carbohydrates such as vegetables, a piece of whole fruit
– Whole grains
– Diabetics need to consume thirty to sixty grams carbohydrates in every meal per day, plus fifteen to thirty grams in the form of every snack daily. Men however, may need some more quantity, so do those diabetics who indulge in exercise daily
– Non-starchy vegetables such as spinach, broccoli and carrots are good for diabetics
– Lean meat such as boiled chicken and broiled fish
– Brown rice, beans
– An eight ounce glass of low-fat milk
– Cheese in small quantities
The following nutrients should be avoided:
– Empty calories in the form of sugars especially the processed ones
– Fried foods
– High-fat meals
– Soft drinks
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